Friday, June 29, 2018

1898: Anno Tre: Sujets composés or Scènes de Genre. La Vie et la Passion de Jésus-Christ (Lumière 1898)


Le Tentation de Saint Antoine (1898) with Georges Méliès as Saint Antoine and Jehanne d'Alcy as Temptation.

Grand piano: Mie Yanashita.
Introduce: Béatrice de Pastre (CNC).
    Sala Mastroianni, Bologna, Il Cinema Ritrovato, 29 June 2018.

CAPITOLO 3: SUJETS COMPOSÉS O SCENE DI GENERE
CHAPTER 3: SUJETS COMPOSÉS OR SCÈNES DE GENRE

Registi del 1898: Hatot e Breteau
Directing films in 1898: Hatot and Breteau

Mariann Lewinsky (Il Cinema Ritrovato): "Georges Hatot and Gaston Breteau (or Bretteau) directed scores of vues Sujets composés (also Scènes de genre) on behalf of Frères Lumière in 1897 and of Léon Gaumont & Co. in 1898. Moreover Breteau begins to appear in the account books of Pathé Frères in 1898, paid for prises cinematographiques and would continue to work for Pathé Frères until 1904, as we know from the detailed history of the enterprise by Stéphanie Salmon, Pathé: À la conquête du cinéma (1896-1929)."

"Breteau and Hatot, who directed, edited and sold films on a contractual basis to several companies, were key figures in these early years of cinematography. They had worked together at the Théâtre de l’Odéon as stage coordinators and engaged an eminent set designer and scene painter, Marcel Jambon (1848-1908), for their cinematographic productions."

"It was Jambon who created the sets for the series of Vues historiques directed by Hatot in 1897 on behalf of the Frères Lumière and for the Life of Christ of 1898 (“after famous paintings of religious art”); these would be used again for the Passion series Breteau directed for Gaumont in 1899. Breteau also acted: he appears on-screen as Jesus Christ in the Lumière series and as the woman smuggling ham and roast chicken under her skirt in L’Utilité des Rayons X."

"The Frères Lumière added ‘genre scenes’ directed by Hatot and Breteau and often shot by Alexandre Promio, such as Barbe-Bleue or Jeanne d’Arc, to add variety to their catalogue. Pathé Frères and Gaumont in 1898 were suppliers of photographic and phonographic merchandise. In 1898 the two companies bought films from the external cinématographistes Hatot and Breteau a ‘software’ for their apparatuses; they would venture into film production seriously only later." Mariann Lewinsky

Barbe-Bleue. Catalogue Lumière Vue N° 946. Barbe-Bleue s’apprête à décapiter son épouse qui a découvert son secret, mais deux hommes l’en empêchent. Opérateur: inconnu. Date: [1897] - 20 novembre 1898. Lieu: France, Paris. Projections: Programmée le 20 novembre 1898 à Lyon (France) sous son titre (Lyon républicain, 20 novembre 1898). Technique: [Décorateur : Marcel Jambon]. Eléments filmiques: négatif Lumière - 1 copie Lumière. Lieu: décor. Objet: costumes.

BARBE-BLEUE. Catalogo Lumière n . 946, Gaston Breteau, Francia, 1898 Scgf.: Marcel Jambon. Prod.: Lumière DCP. D.: 1’  Da: Cinémathèque française (coll. Olivier Auboin-Vermorel)  Digitalizzato nel 2015 in 4K da Cinémathèque française e Institut Lumière a partire da un nitrato 35 mm con perforazioni Lumière conservato da Cinémathèque française / Digitalized in 2015 in 4K by Cinémathèque française and Institut Lumière from a nitrate 35 mm print with Lumière perforations preserved at Cinémathèque française. – AA: Fiction, fairy-tale, horror. Pochoir colour. Bluebeard is about to behead his wife who has revealed his secret.

Exécution de Jeanne d’Arc. Catalogue Lumière Vue N° 964. Jeanne d’Arc est amenée devant l’évêque Cauchon puis installée sur le bûcher. Titre issu du Catalogue des vues - Septième Liste. Opérateur: inconnu. Date: [1897] - 20 novembre 1898. Lieu: France, [Paris]. Projections: Programmée le 20 novembre 1898 à Lyon (France) sous son titre (Lyon républicain, 20 novembre 1898). Eléments filmiques: négatif Lumière - 1 contretype Lumière. Lieu: décor. Objet: costumes.

EXÉCUTION DE JEANNE D’ARC Catalogo Lumière n . 964, Gaston Breteau, Francia, 1898  T. int.: Execution of Joan of Arc. Prod.: Lumière DCP. D.: 1’. Col Da: Cinémathèque française (coll. Olivier Auboin-Vermorel) Restaurato nel 2015 da Cinémathèque française e Institut Lumière a partire da un positivo nitrato 35 mm imbibito e colorato a mano con perforazioni Lumière / Restored in 2015 by Cinémathèque française and Institut Lumière from a positive nitrate 35 mm print tinted and hand-colored with Lumière perforations. – AA: Fiction, a historical moment. Possibly the earliest film on Jeanne d'Arc. Jeanne d'Arc is brought to Bishop Cauchon and taken to the stake. Pochoir colour.

Serie: La Vie et la Passion de Jésus-Christ
Series: La Vie et La Passion de Jésus-Christ

Dominique Moustacchi (Il Cinema Ritrovato): "Louis and Auguste Lumière shot fiction as soon as the Cinematograph came into being, producing everyday domestic scenes performed and recorded, either at home in Lyons’ Monplaisir neighbourhood or in the family’s holiday villa at La Ciotat on the south coast, from 1895 onwards. During these early years, however, through 1896 and 1897, ‘drama’ occupied only a very small proportion of the company’s catalogue. It was not until 1898 that the genre took off. That year, fully one third of the films produced fell into this category, as awareness of competition from Pathe Frères and Léon Gaumont & Cie grew. Having produced various comic shorts and historical tableaux or reconstructions, the Lumière Bros company then decided to embark on a major series called La Vie et La Passion de Jésus-Christ (‘Life and Passion of Jesus Christ’) in 13 tableaux. This was shown at Lyons over the Christmas period and again during the 1899 Easter season. Michelle Aubert & Jean-Claude Seguin’s catalogue raisonné, La Production cinématographique des frères Lumière (published by BiFi –Editions Mémoires de cinéma, 1996), credits Alexandre Promio as sole camera operator, though it seems the series was in fact directed by Georges Hatot, with Marcel Jambon as production designer and Promio as cameraman. Such an arrangement would represent a step forwards in the Lyons-based company’s production mode, considering that camera operators had previously worked alone, with the occasional help of an assistant. Thus, with this first team the Cinematograph, originally designed for individual use, became cinema, a collective undertaking." Dominique Moustacchi

LA VIE ET LA PASSION DE JÉSUS-CHRIST
Francia, 1898 Regia: [Georges Hatot] Operatore: [Alexandre Promio]. Int.: Gaston Breteau (Gesù). Prod.: Frères Lumières 35 mm. – AA: One of the earliest multi-shot Passion Plays of the cinema, conveyed with a tableaux vivants approach, respecting conventions established in pictorial presentations of the life of Christ.

La Passion I. L’adoration des Mages. Catalogue Lumière Vue N° 933. “Dans l’intérieur de la crèche, la Vierge veille auprès de l’enfant Jésus. Un esclave vient annoncer à Joseph, qu’il précède les Rois conduits par l’Étoile auprès de l’enfant-né. Entrée des Rois mages, qui viennent se prosterner devant la Crèche et déposer au pied du Divin Enfant les dons en hommage qu’ils ont apportés avec eux.” Opérateur: Alexandre Promio. Date: [1897] - 5 décembre 1898. Lieu: France, Paris. Projections: Déposée au Greffe du Conseil des Prud'hommes de la Ville de Lyon le 5 décembre 1898.Programmée le 25 décembre 1898 à Lyon (France) sous le titre L'Adoration des mages (Le Progrès, 25 décembre 1898). Technique: Décorateur: Marcel Jambon. Eléments filmiques: négatif Lumière - 1 contretype Lumière - 3 copies Lumière - 2 copies Edison. Lieu: décor. Genre: art, comédie, religion. Sujet: animal, comédien. Objet: costumes. Séries: La Passion, Les scènes reconstituées tournées par Alexandre Promio (1898).

I. L’Adoration des Mages (n . 933). – AA: The gestures of the Magi are telegraphed in the manger.

II. La Fuite en Égypte (n . 934) – AA: Modelled after Luc-Olivier Merson's painting as explained in Valentine Robert's Tableaux vivants show.

III. L’Arrivée à Jérusalem (n . 935) – AA: Starring Gaston Breteau, an early case of an actor portraying Jesus Christ on the screen.

IV. Trahison de Judas (n . 936) – AA: The gestures are telegraphed to emphasize the betrayal.

V. Résurrection de Lazare (n . 937) – AA: Jesus is portrayed as a great magician, a bit like Georges Méliès.

VI. La Cène (n . 938) – AA: The model is Leonardo da Vinci.

VII. L’Arrestation de Jésus-Christ (n . 939) – AA: Histrionic overacting as Judas points Jesus to Herod.

VIII. La Flagellation (n . 940) – AA: Jesus whipped.

IX. Le Couronnement d’épines (n . 941) – AA: The Crown of Thorns.

X. La Mise en croix (n . 942) – AA: A powerful view as the nails are hammered through the arms.

XI. Le Calvaire (n . 943) – AA: Crucified between the two thieves.

XII. La Mise au tombeau (n . 944) – AA: The casket is heavy.

XIII. La Résurrection (n . 945) – AA: Jesus rises from the grave.

LA TENTATION DE SAINT ANTOINE
Francia, 1898 Regia: Georges Méliès Int.: Georges Méliès, Jehanne d’Alcy Prod.: Star Film (n. 169) 35 mm. L.: 21 m. Bn Da: La Cinémathèque française
    AA: One of the first blasphemous works in film history. Visions of wonderful women torment Saint Anthony. Even the Christ on the cross and angels turn into seductive women. There is a direct line from here to Luis Buñuel and Simón del desierto.

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