Saturday, April 12, 2014

Son nom de Venise dans Calcutta désert

FR 1976. PC: Cinéma 9, Paris Inter Productions (PIP), Albatros Films. P: François Barat, Pierre Barat. D+SC: Marguerite Duras - India Song. DP: Bruno Nuytten - negative: 35 mm - colour - first 1,33:1, then 1,66:1. M: Carlos d’Alessio. Ludwig van Beethoven: Diabelli-Variationen (33 Veränderungen über einen Walzer von Diabelli), Var. XIV Grave e maestoso. ED: Geneviève Dufour. The actors do not appear in the film, only their voices are heard. The soundtrack is that of India Song, only the very ending is new. Voice talent: Delphine Seyrig (Anne-Marie Stretter), Michel Lonsdale (M. Stretter, le vice-consul de Lahore), Nicole Hiss (une voix intemporelle), Sylvie Nuytten. Loc: Château Rothschild (Boulogne-Billancourt). The film was not released in Finland. 120 min
    A DD Films print screened with e-subtitles in Finnish by Kristina Haataja, operated by Lena Talvio, at Cinema Orion, Helsinki (Marguerite Duras), 12 April 2014

The India trilogy (La Femme du Gange, India Song, son nom de Venise dans Calcutta désert) has a central place in the film oeuvre of Marguerite Duras. Their objective was to "destroy" her three India novels. The literary basis is strong, yet the films are arrestingly visual. The soundtrack has been severed entirely from the visuals.

Revisited Son nom de Venise dans Calcutta désert, Marguerite Duras's piece of radically avantgardistic cinema, extremely reduced, discarding visible acting performances. It is an audio play with a separate image track. The action of the film: Marguerite Duras plays back the soundtrack of India Song (1975, only the very ending is different) while the cameraman wanders around and inside Château Rothschild. Slowly the soundtrack grows into mesmerizing power and intensity. Towards the end there is the only episode with visible people, almost motionless, like reflections, or zombies.

The name of the film - "Her Venetian Name in the Calcutta Desert" - refers to the desperate scream of M. Stretter: "Anne!" Equally unforgettable as "Stella!" in A Streetcar Named Desire.

Château Rothschild has been getting dilapidated since WWII, carrying scars of German occupation and terror, and Allied administration afterwards.

The traumata of history are reflected both in the audio play (India) and in the disparate visuals (the Rothschild ruins).

In India Song, Anne-Marie Stretter sleeps under the open sky and drowns in the morning into the sea whose fog reminds her of Venice and her lost youth.

At the end of Son nom de Venise dans Calcutta désert we leave the ruined castle. We see the sea, the sun, the empty beach. We watch the sunset in real time. The new audio starts here. Two male voices talk about the beggar woman from Savannaket at Mekong (where Anne-Marie first attempted suicide after a dying child had been left at her doorstep).

Son nom de Venise dans Calcutta désert is like a haunting incantation, a prose poem about solitude, despair, and desolation.

Not only the voice track but also the score composed and compiled by Carlos d'Alessio gains a new force in this "remake". There is his "India Song Blues", of course. There are the Indian chants of the beggar woman. There is a tango. There is Latin dance music. There is 1920s-style film music, reminiscent of hit songs from What Price Glory? And there is Beethoven's Diabelli variation for the piano, the "grave e maestoso".

Tytti Rantanen wrote an excellent programme note for our screening. Her sources: Laure Adler: Marguerite Duras. Paris: Gallimard, 1998. - Maurice Blanchot: "La littérature et le droit à la mort" in La Part du Feu (1949). Paris: Gallimard, 1972, p. 293–331.

The print looked fine to start with, but there appeared like a reflection on the image, and then there was no deep black left. As there seemed to be nothing wrong in the projection, and there were no problems in our other 35 mm projections, the mysterious veil seemed to be a defect of the print.

Friday, April 11, 2014

Umarete wa mita keredo / I Was Born, But...

Hideo Sugawara, Seiichi Kato, Tomio Aoki (from left). Wikipedia / Shochiku.
大人の見る絵本 生れてはみたけれど / Otona no miru ehon - Umarete wa mita keredo / [A Picture-Book for Adults: I Was Born, But...] / Synnyin, mutta... / Jag föddes men. JP 1932. PC: Shochiku Kamata Studio. D: Yasujiro Ozu. SC: Akira Fushimi - adaptation: Geibei Ibushiya - based on an idea by James Maki [= Yasujiro Ozu]. DP+ED: Hideo Shigehara - silent at 24 fps. Camera assistants: Yuharu Atsuta, Masao Irie. AD: Takejiro Kadota. Set dec: Yoshiro Kimura, Takejiro Tsunoda. Set furnishings: Shintaro Mimura, Tsunetaro Inoue. Lighting: Toshimitsu Nakajima. C: Tatsuo Saitô (Yoshii, dad, chichi), Mitsuko Yoshikawa (Yoshi's wife, mom, haha), Hideo Sugahara (Ryoichi, elder son), Tokkan-Kozo = Tomio Aoki (Keiji, younger son), Takeshi Sakamoto (Iwasaki, the executive), Teruyo Haymi (Mrs. Iwasaki), Seiichi Kato (Taro), Seiji Nishimura (teacher), Shoichi Kofujita (delivery boy), Chishu Ryu (projectionist). 9 reels, 2507 m. Original length 100 min. Print screened 91 min. A 1993 Japan Foundation print with English subtitles by Donald Richie viewed at Cinema Orion, Helsinki (Yasujiro Ozu), 11 April 2014

IMDb synopsis by Peter Renoir Nakai: "Two young brothers become the leaders of a gang of kids in their neighborhood. Their father is an office clerk who tries for advancement by playing up his boss. When the boys visit the boss' house with their father, they discover that their dad has been making a fool of himself to please his boss, who's son is an outwitted member of the boys' gang."

Revisited Yasujiro Ozu's I Was Born, But..., for Donald Richie, "the first of his great films".

It's a tale about the birth of social consciousness, a satire on class society in which the children's world and the grown-ups' world mirror each other.

After the film I read the remarks of Donald Richie and David Bordwell, always rewarding.

Richie thinks that the film is, among other things, about a loss of innocence and resignation to the order of things where the boss is the greater man. For Bordwell, from the start, the dad, Yoshii, is presented as a loser, and the epilogue "presents a veritable orgy of images of resignation".

I think, too, that on a certain level I Was Born, But... is about all that - a loss of innocence, and a resignation to the realities of social hierarchy and class distinctions.

The film had its premiere in 1932. Japan had attacked Manchuria and established the puppet state of Manchukuo on the Soviet border; many find this attack the true start of the Second World War; certainly, from the viewpoint of the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. it was so. Certain prominent Japanese directors, such as Kenji Mizoguchi, produced imperialist propaganda in 1932. Ozu always managed to avoid that, even during his service of five years in the army in the 1940s with the sole task to make propaganda films.

The key revelation of I Was Born, But... takes place in the "film within the film", boss Iwasaki's home movie evening, where we, and the sons, see dad, "the great man" reduced to a clown. It's buffoonery, it's nonsense, it's all about making funny / mad faces. It was familiar territory for Ozu who started his film career in nonsense farces. The sons' reverent image of their father is crushed, and dad himself is utterly embarrassed.

The sons are embarrassed, and dad is embarrassed because his sons are. But I find that Ozu and we the viewers can see all this from a higher perspective. Ozu's favourite director was Ernst Lubitsch, and in the same year 1932 Lubitsch directed his episode The Clerk for If I Had a Million, quoted in extenso in Ozu's Tokyo no onna / A Woman of Tokyo (1933). The Lubitsch episode ends with the clerk's raspberry to his boss, and I feel that Yoshii's clownery belongs to the same category. There is a sequence in I Was Born, But... where the camera pans to reveal a whole row of yawning employees at the office, and the film continues seamlessly with a pan in the classroom showing equally bored schoolboys. This kind of satire is obviously Lubitschean, and I find the stance of both Lubitsch and Ozu far from submissive or resigned. Ozu may be a conservative and a traditionalist, but he weighs his people on scales more substantial than those of social hierarchy. Jokes were Ozu's shield also during his war service when he defied authority in defense of Kurosawa.

This looked like a clean and integral print from somewhat challenging and duped sources, image sometimes slightly cropped from the top. Not bad, not one of the best print-wise, but perhaps as good as it gets.

The Prohibition of the Image (my lecture at Cinema Orion + a panel discussion with Johan Bastubacka and Deniz Bedretdin)

Rothko Chapel
Kuvan kielto uskonnossa / The Prohibition of the Image (my lecture at Cinema Orion + panel discussion with Johan Bastubacka and Deniz Bedretdin).
    Lecture series Elokuva uskonnon peilinä / Cinema as a Mirror of Religion.
    HYY:n Elokuvaryhmä järjestää luentosarjan yhteistyössä Helsingin yliopiston uskontotieteen oppiaineen populaarikulttuurin tutkijapiirin ja KAVI:n kanssa elokuvateatteri Orionissa perjantaisin klo 14.30. / Arranged by the Film Society of the Student Union of the University of Helsinki together with the Study Group of Popular Culture at the discipline of Comparative Religion at the University of Helsinki, and KAVI (National Audiovisual Institute, Finland).
    Cinema Orion, Helsinki (Cinema as a Mirror of Religion), 11 April 2014.

My topics included:

1. The image ban, the invisible God, the birth of monotheism, the birth of the alphabet, the leap in abstraction in the human mind and culture, "the dawn of conscience" (J. H. Breasted).

2. The prohibition of the image in the Ten Commandments. Its different translations into Finnish in 1552, 1642, 1776, 1933/1938, and 1992. The Catechism. The terminology in different languages: Bilderverbot, aniconism. The Latin formulation in the Vulgata: non facies tibi sculptile neque omnem similitudinem quae est in caelo desuper et quae in terra deorsum nec eorum quae sunt in aquis sub terra. The Hebrew original: לא תעשה־לך פסל וכל־תמונה אשר בשמים ממעל ואשר בארץ מתחת ואשר במים מתחת .לארץ The keyword פסל (pesel) means a graven image. The image ban is discussed in several passages of the Torah / the Five Books of Moses and other ancient holy texts. The word for the image in Genesis is בְּצֶ֥לֶם.

3. Examples of the image ban and iconoclasm include: - The iconoclasm of the Jews during the Biblical era - The removal of the images from Kaaba, from around the Black Stone by the Muslims. - Episodes of iconoclasm in Hinduism. - In African cultures the Highest God is not represented figuratively. - The Australian aborigines have a prohibition of the image of the recently deceased during their voyage to the Dreaming. - Crusaders and missionaries have destroyed holy images everywhere around the world. - The vandalization of the giant Moai statues on Easter Island before the arrival of the Europeans in the 18th century. - The French Revolution, the Russian Revolution, and the Chinese Cultural Revolution. - The destruction of the giant Buddha statues by the Taliban in Bamiyan in 2001. - The destruction of the Sufi shrines in Timbuktu in 2012. - In a more general sense, aniconism has been linked with abstract art, minimalism, and Finnish Design.

4. The image ban can be applied to - God - anything holy - legendary and historical figures - humans - anything living - everything. --- It can be limited to the presentation of - eyes - faces - genitals, etc.

5. The image ban is a characteristic of monotheism in its rejection of polytheistic idolatry. - The eldest known monotheistic high culture, that of Akhenaten, did not ban images but promoted instead a notable turn in the art of representation. - Tacitus claimed that ancient Germans had a prohibition of images of gods; yet images of gods of ancient Germans have been found. - In Judaism, Islam, and at times and also still in certain contemporary interpretations of Christianity the image ban has been observed. - Also in the Assyrian church and in Zoroastrianism.

6. Closely linked with this is the prohibition to pronounce God's name. 2. Moses 3:14: "And God saith unto Moses, `I AM THAT WHICH I AM;' He saith also, `Thus dost thou say to the sons of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.'" - יהויה JHWH, אֶהְיֶה Ehje, "I Am", or אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה, Ehje ašer ehje, "I Am That I Am”. - God has no image nor a name.

7. In Christianity a solution to the issue of the representation of God is Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Divine Trinity. For centuries there have been debates about the representation of Jesus. Meanwhile Christian visual art has developed into a treasure trove of world art, and icons have become an important issue for instance in the Eastern Christian traditions. There has been a debate on the definitions of the idol and the icon. Idolatry is banned; icon worship is fostered. - From the viewpoint of Judaism and Islam, the Divine Trinity is a compromise between polytheism and monotheism, between idolatry and the image ban.

8. Since the 3. century Christian churches have started to take positions on art. The interpretations have differed in the extreme, from interpretations of an absolute image ban to flourishing cultures of religious visual art. - In 380 Constitutiones Apostolorum required painters, whores, actors, and boxers to relinquish their craft as a condition of being admitted to the church. - But there was no consistent stand on the image ban. - A major division started in the 6. century: in Byzantium, images were rejected whereas the Pope and the patriarchates of the Arab countries favoured art. Many Byzantian artists fleed to Rome.

9. There were two grave waves of iconoclasm in the Byzantium in the 8. and the 9. centuries.

10. During the Reformation there were huge waves of destruction of images in the 16. century, known as Beeldenstorm or Bildersturm. Among the Protestants, Martin Luther took a conciliatory stand and saw much good in images bringing people closer to the faith, but Huldrych Zwingli and Jean Calvin renounced all visual representation.

11. In contemporary Christianity there are prominent revival movements, such as Laestadianism in the Nordic countries, who condemn certain areas of culture, including performing arts and moving images. Anabaptists, the Amish, the Mennonites, and Brethren in Christ observe the prohibition of the image. Amish dolls have no faces.

12. In the Quran there is no image ban. Highly significant was, however, the banishment of images from Mecca, and since the 8. century there is the tradition that man-created images have been banned, since God is the sole Creator. Some schools of thought emphsize that the image is inseparable from the unity of God. In 722 during Caliph Yazid II there was an iconoclasm. But the image ban has not been absolute, and it has not been observed in secular circumstances. Mostly there have been guidelines about figurative images in mosques and about the propriety of photographs in religious connections. - Nomadic Muslims were more strict in the image ban than Muslim farmers. - The purpose was to oppose idolatry and remove instruments of magic. - The viewpoint was that God is beyond form and image. Superstition and all figurative anthropomorphism was rejected. The religion was taught by word only. - Generally there are no figurative representations of living beings in holy spaces. - False generalizations about islam's image ban appear in Western media. There is a strong tradition of figurative art in Muslim art. Tolerance has been the general approach, and art of other religions has been admitted.

13. The image ban, society and the economic system. - Sigmund Freud (in Der Mann Moses) stated that the ban of the image and the name of God was a triumph of spirituality over sensuality, an epochal step in Menschwerdung, in the process of mankind becoming truly human. - Max Weber, the author of Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist der Kapitalismus (and an extensive body of work about society and religion) argued that the image ban is an essential aspect of intellectualism and rationalism, with fundamental consequences for the development of society, such as the triumph of Capitalism. - In Finland, there is still a prominent correlation between religious fundamentalism of the Protestant revival movements and economic success.

14. Related terms: the taboo.
15. Related terms: censorship.
16. Related terms: iconoclasm, and damnatio memoriae.

17. The holy and its presentation in the cinema. Religion has been a central theme in the cinema since the beginning, and there has been a wide span of means of expression, from the excess of Indian religious musicals to the ascetic reduction of Dreyer. - In early cinema, views from the Holy Land were taken by many production companies. - One of the earliest genres of the feature film in the 1890s was the Passion Play, then often as a record of the traditional Oberammergau performance. - There were artistically valuable films already during early cinema, made by some of the best talents of French cinema, such as La Vie et la passion de Jésus Christ (1903), composed of tableaux directed by Ferdinand Zecca. Also Sidney Olcott's From the Manger to the Cross (1912), shot on the Holy Land, belongs to the important early feature films. - From the late 1920s till the late 1950s there was a tradition in Hollywood films that Christ was not shown. In the Sermon on the Mount scenes in Ben-Hur, The Robe, and The Big Fisherman Christ is not shown, only the reactions on the faces of those who have heard him speak.

18. The holy and its presentation in the cinema: asceticism - the reticence to show. Paul Schrader has examined three artists who have taken the road of showing less in his book Transcendental Style in Film: Yasujiro Ozu (a secular director with a sense of Buddhist and Shintoist cultural tradition), Robert Bresson (a Roman Catholic-Jansenist atheist), and Carl Th. Dreyer (reflecting Protestantism in La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc also Catholicism, [and in Die Gezeichneten, Jewish life]). - The great Frenchmen André Bazin, Henri Agel, and Amédée Ayfre have a comparable insight in presenting the holy in the cinema. - Divinity, the holy, is invisible. - By a devout focus on the everyday, by the way of reduction of everything inessential, the artist can lead us onto the path towards grasping better what exceeds the limits of our compehension.

19. The very opposite to the Ozu-Bresson-Dreyer approach is tonight's film The Ten Commandments (of 1956). Why this film? - The turning-point of the film is the sequence where Moses descends from Mount Sinai with the Tablets of the Law and sees his people dancing around the Golden Calf. This is a dramatization of our theme of idolatry versus the invisible God. - This is also our Easter Film, as we celebrate Easter next week. - This film is a big Hollywood spectacle, but Cecil B. DeMille had an ecumenic approach in consulting Jewish, Christian, and Muslim experts to get it right. It was shot on location in Egypt. - We may smile at the wooden performance of Charlton Heston in the title role, but the film on the whole is marvellously cast, the people are of flesh and blood, and there are many unforgettable vignettes. There is a joy of storytelling and a passion for the subject-matter, since Cecil B. DeMille was both a true believer and a master of the spectacle. He has the full command on one of the greatest myths, but although the film is full of attractions, finally it is about the triumph of the spirit.

20. A remark on Catholic film directors. In the history of art, no other religious orientation has inspired as much great visual art as Roman Catholicism (we need only remember the Renaissance trio of Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raffaello). The same goes for the cinema. Alfred Hitchcock, John Ford, Henry King, Leo McCarey, Éric Rohmer, and Federico Fellini are all great Catholic directors, and Catholic themes and images are also essential for atheists such as Roberto Rossellini, Robert Bresson, and Luis Buñuel. The wild bird of Finnish cinema, Teuvo Tulio, was a Roman Catholic.

The panel discussion
There was an inspired panel discussion with Johan Bastubacka (a Christian) and Deniz Bedretdin (a Muslim) with many intelligent comments also from the audience. There was also the essential reminder than in the beginning of the Genesis men and women are created in the image of God.

Genesis 1:26-27 (King James)
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

26 וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אָדָ֛ם בְּצַלְמֵ֖נוּ כִּדְמוּתֵ֑נוּ וְיִרְדּוּ֩ בִדְגַ֨ת הַיָּ֜ם וּבְעֹ֣וף הַשָּׁמַ֗יִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּבְכָל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶ֖מֶשׂ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃
27 וַיִּבְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים ׀ אֶת־הָֽאָדָם֙ בְּצַלְמֹ֔ו בְּצֶ֥לֶם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בָּרָ֣א אֹתֹ֑ו זָכָ֥ר וּנְקֵבָ֖ה בָּרָ֥א אֹתָֽם׃

I did not stay to see Cecil B. DeMille's The Ten Commandments this time, but I returned to watch the end: Moses hurls the tablets on the golden calf, and the sinners fall to a burning abyss. After thirty years of a punishing trek in the desert (korpivaellus in Finnish), the now frail Moses stays behind as the people of Israel finally crosses the River Jordan, to the land of freedom having escaped from the land of slavery. So it was written. So it shall be done.

Recommendations for further reading:
Paul Schrader: Transcendental Style in Film. Ozu, Bresson, Dreyer. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 1972
Mary Lea Bandy and Antonio Monda: The Hidden God. Film and Faith. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2003
Tomas Axelson och Ola Sigurdson: Film och religion. Livstolkning på vita duken. Örebro: Cordia, 2005
Jolyon Mitchell and S. Brent Plate: The Religion and Film Reader. New York and London: Routledge, 2007
John Lyden (ed.): The Routledge Companion to Religion and Film. London and New York: Routledge, 2009
Nacim Pak-Shiraz: Shi’i Islam in Iranian Cinema. Religion and Spirituality in Film. London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2011
"Bilderverbot": the German Wikipedia article with excellent links.

Grand speculations on the birth of monotheism:
James Henry Breasted: The Dawn of Conscience. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933.
Thomas Mann: Joseph und seine Brüder I-IV. Frankfurt am Main (I-II), Stockholm (III-IV): S. Fischer Verlag, 1933-1943.
Sigmund Freud: Der Mann Moses und die monoteistische Religion. Amsterdam: De Lange, 1939.
Mika Waltari: Sinuhe egyptiläinen. Porvoo-Helsinki: WSOY, 1945.

The image (the word used in Genesis), put into the Google Translator:
image  בְּצֶ֥לֶם 
image תְמוּנָה, דְמוּת, תַדמִית, דְיוֹקָן, בָּבוּאָה, צֶלֶם
idol אֱלִיל, פֶּסֶל, צֶלֶם
likeness דְמוּת, דִמיוֹן, דְיוֹקָן, צֶלֶם, תְמוּנָה, דִמוּי
semblance מַראִית עַיִן, דִמיוֹן, צֶלֶם, מַרְאֶה הַחִצוֹנִי
form טוֹפֶס, צוּרָה, דְמוּת, תַבְנִית, דְפוּס, צֶלֶם

Wednesday, April 09, 2014

Runoilija muuttaa / [The Poet Is Moving]

Skalden flyttar. FI 1927. PC: Suomi-Filmi. P+D+ED: Erkki Karu. DP: Frans Ekebom - camera assistant: Armas Fredman. Make-up: Hannes Kuokkanen. Compilation score for the cinema orchestra: Musette (comp. Jean Sibelius), Viens (comp. Pearcy), Valse lyrique (comp. Jean Sibelius), Vappu shimmy (comp. Sjöblom), Tonttujen tanssi (comp. Ilmari Hannikainen), Valse chevaleresque (comp. Jean Sibelius). Studio manager: Martti Tuukka. Stills: Kosti Lehtinen. C: Ossi Korhonen (Eero Heso, a poet), Glory Leppänen (Mrs. Tuisku), Uuno Laakso (Mr. Tuisku), Birgit Sergelius (Liisa, sister of Mrs. Tuisku), Heikki Välisalmi (uncle Turpeinen from Joroinen), Heljä Salomaa (a two-year-old child), Hannikainen. Helsinki premiere: 13 Nov 1937 Kino-Palatsi, distributed by Suomen Biografi Osakeyhtiö - telecast: 19 Jan 1970 MTV1 - vhs release: Suomi-Filmi.
    Finnish / Swedish intertitles. 750 m /20 fps/ 27 min
    Digitally restored by KAVA (2013). KAVI 2K DCP, piano: Joonas Raninen, screened at Cinema Orion, Helsinki (Erkki Karu), 9 April 2014

Runoilija muuttaa was produced in a hurry as a supplement film to the feature film Vaihdokas which had proved too short. The screenplay was adapted, probably by Erkki Karu himself, from a previous Suomi-Filmi comedy called Se parhaiten nauraa, joka viimeksi nauraa [He Laughs Best Who Laughs Last]. The result was so successful that some critics found the comedy short better than the feature. There was also a plan to launch an entire series of short Suomi-Filmi comedies, but the plan was not executed.

I had previously seen only a modest vhs tape of this comedy, and first now I released how good Runoilija muuttaa is. It belongs to the top films directed by Erkki Karu, and it is better than the more famous When Dad Has Toothache. It is an important link in the development of Finnish screen comedy.

The poet is evicted due to unpaid rents, his belongings are thrown onto the street, and unannounced he moves to the home of his best friend, Mr. Tuisku, to the dismay of Mrs. Tuisku, and to the delight of her sister Liisa. The poet has financed his extravagant lifestyle by the generous support of his rich uncle whose sole inheritor he is. But the poet has been lying about the circumstances of his life, and now the uncle has just arrived into the capital from the province of Savo.

The main strength of Runoilija muuttaa is the good cast.

Glory Leppänen, daughter of the opera star Aino Achté, was then a promising young actress at the National Theatre; later she became a prominent theatre leader and director. After Erkki Karu died suddenly in 1935 she got to replace Karu as a film director and became the first woman in Finland to direct a film. She plays the formidable Mrs. Tuisku.

Uuno Laakso in his second film role, his first for Suomi-Filmi, was also a prominent theatre actor, and he became a mainstay of Finnish film comedy, especially with Suomi-Filmi. He is already quite recognizable here, but not yet mannered.

Birgit Sergelius is bright and cinematic and a harbinger of the future, the witty film comedies of Valentin Vaala. After a few Finnish silents she moved to Sweden and was picked by Gustaf Molander for the title role of Charlotte Löwensköld.

Heikki Välisalmi was a politician (also a MP), a prolific author and newspaperman - and a film actor in some ten films, usually for Erkki Karu. He is a natural as the rich uncle from Joroinen. (He also plays the leading role in our main feature today, Mr. Elanto).

Having gotten used to see often wooden Finnish film acting in this period I was pleasantly surprised by the good interplay of these four. Glory Leppänen is perhaps too good for this kind of light entertainment, but the others have a good sense of pantomime and comic timing.

Only Ossi Korhonen in the title role is a bit bland in this debut film of his, but not obtrusively so. He went on to have a long theatre career, and almost 70 film and tv roles.

The intertitles are funny.

The uncle arrives with a load of gifts, including a rocking horse for the poet's presumed baby. He also produces a giant kalakukko (fish pie baked in a huge loaf of bread), a local delicacy from Savo.

Towards the conclusion the uncle discovers that everything the poet has been telling him is lies - there is no wife, no home, and no baby. Unperturbed, he takes the situation into his own hands,  launches the arrangements that the poet will have a wife, a home, and a baby, and announces that he will stay in Helsinki until that has been achieved.

The bright Liisa, the sister of Mrs. Tuisku, has been behind the scenes arranging things and saving everybody from catastrophes.

This well-made light social comedy anticipates Valentin Vaala's efforts in the 1930s.

The digital restoration is successful. It is almost all interiors. There is a nice balance in the definition of light, the grayscale is pleasant, and it feels good to watch this in refined black and white.

Sunday, April 06, 2014

Early Russian 3D Films: Concert (1940), Crystals (1948), Karandash on Ice (1948), Park Alleys (1952) (digital 2K 3D restoration by Gosfilmofond 2011-2012)

The premiere in 1941 at Cinema Moskva of the first Russian 3D film Concert. - Премьера фильма «Концерт» в кинотеатре «Москва», 1941 г. Фото: пресс-служба фестиваля «Арткино»
Early Russian 3D Films. Restored digitally at Gosfilmofond 2011-2012 (Nikolai Majorov / Nikolai Mayorov and Vladimir Kotovski / Vladimir Kotovsky). Filmmuseum München 2K DCP screened at XpandD, electronic subtitles by Elli Salo (projected under the image), introduced by Stefan Drössler, Cinema Orion, Helsinki (3D), 6 April 2014
    Stefan Drössler: All three Soviet 3D systems of the 1940s and the 1950s are on display in this screening.

The first title frame of the screening: Товарищи зрители - Comrades viewers - put your special glasses on!

Kontsert / Konцert - Парад молодости/ [Konsertti] / Zemlja molodosti / Consert / Konzert – Das Land der Jugend / Land of the Youth. SU 1940. Premiere: 1941. PC: Sojuzdetfilm. D+SC: Aleksandr Andrijevski / Alexander Andriyevsky. DP: Dmitri Surenski / Dmitry Surensky – Kodak (b&w) / Agfa (colour) - paired horizontal stereo image - 11 x 16 mm - aspect ratio 0.69:1. Featuring: Vladimir Jahontov / Vladimir Yakhontov, Vera Dulova, Jakov Flier / Yakov Flier, Galina Nemtshenko / Galina Nemchenko, Vitali Spevak. The original: 7 reels, 1975 m. Reconstructed at Gosfilmofond (2011) for 2K DCP 3D, 40 min
    The first publicly screened Soviet 3D film consists of seven episodes. It was shot at Sojuzdetfilm and premiered at Cinema Moskva on 4 February, 1941. The grid screen was 3,1 x 5 meters. (The first experimental Russian 3D screening took place in 1911 at Cinema Tangara in St. Petersburg. Little is known about it.)
    SD: All the performers were favourites of Stalin. The original soundtrack is missing. The film has been reconstructed by using recordings of the same artists, but it is out of synch.
    1. At the seaside, Vladimir Yakhontov recites Vladimir Mayakovski's poem "Good!" / "Хорошо! Октябрьская поэма" (1927). Elli Salo had the insight to apply here an old Finnish Stalin-era translation by Armas Äikiä.
    2. In a fantastic hall, Vera Dulova plays P. I. Tchaikovsky's "Sentimental Waltz" on the harp. There are transparent balloons flying toward us. Depth effects are also achieved via flowers thrown at the finale.
    3. At the grand piano, Yakov Flier plays "Un sospiro. Étude No. 3 in D-flat major" by Franz Liszt. We film lovers remember it as the haunting theme of Max Ophuls's Letter from an Unknown Woman.
    4. In the garden, the soprano Galina Nemchenko sings the waltz "Frühlingsstimmen" by Johann Strauss, Jr.
    5. At the stage, the virtuoso juggler Vitaly Spevak performs. The show is astounding, and the depth effects are striking, also in high angle shots.
    6. The image bursts into two-colour in the garden with pheasants, little birds flying from us and towards us, parrots, and storks. Music: the waltz from Ivan Glinka's opera A Life for the Czar.
    7. The carnival of the youth, with grotesque masks and a globe with the letters USSR prominent.
    AA: The high, starkly vertical frame, makes possible an original and striking composition. There are several shots of high aesthetic quality. An essential entry in the cinema's 3D story.

After the war, Stereokino (1947) had a lenticular screen of 3,2 x 3,1 meters. The first programme was Robinson Crusoe, from February 1947 till December 1948. In the next programme, Kristally and Karandash na ldu were shown together, and the premiere was on 25 December, 1948.

Kristally / Кристаллы. Hаучно популярный фильм; / Crystals / [Kristalleja]. SU 1948. PC: Mosnauchfilm. D: Jakov Kaplunov / Yakov Kaplunov. DP: A. Astafjev – Agfacolor (2. and 3. reels) / Kodak (b&w reels 1 and 4) - paired horizontal stereo image - 10,3 x 10 mm. AN: Dmitri Babitshenko / Dmitri Babitchenko, Jelena Hludova / Yelena Khludova. M: V. Oranski / V. Oranskij. Narrator: L. Hmara / L. Khmara. The original: 4 reels, 569 m / 20:04 min. Reconstructed (Gosfilmofond 2012) for 2K DCP 3D, 20 min
    SD: Maybe the first film with 3D cartoon scenes.
    An educational film about crystals and their formation. In animated scenes the explorer is seen in miniature studying atom structure. The premiere was on 25 December, 1948, in Moscow's new Cinema Stereokino with a new 3.1 x 3.2 meter lenticular screen.
    AA: An excellent popular scientific film in which the 3D does make sense. It is an exploration into atom structure, the structure of matter (ice / water, ametyst, bismuth, lead, copper, gold, sugar, silk, wool, corals, clams, meteors). The animation is very well done.

Karandash na ldu / Карандаш на льду / [Karandash jäällä] / Karandash on Ice. SU 1948. PC: Stereokino. D: V. Nemoljajev / V. Nemolyaev. SC: V. Ladynina. DP: S. Rubashkin / S. Rubachkin– Agfa / Kodak 35 mm - paired horizontal stereo image - 10.3 x 10 mm - aspect ratio 1:1. AD: A. Shelaputina. M: S. Katz. S: S. Senkevich - mono. C: Mihail Rumjantsev / Mikhail Rumyantsev (Karandash), L. Tselikovskaja / L. Tselikovskaya (Natasha). The original: 3 reels, 630 m / 23 min. Reconstructed (Gosfilmofond 2012) for 2K DCP 3D, 23 min
    The famous clown Karandash in an ice bandy match. Karandash is a reserve goalkeeper in the female ice bandy team in which his girlfriend is playing. Karandash was the favourite Moscow comedian of Ivor Montagu.
    AA: Farce in the snow and on ice, a musical comedy approach, military orchestra, waltzes again, now on ice, Karandash fooling around among figure skaters and in the mixed ice bandy match (Meteor vs. The Seagull). The comedy is rather mediocre. - NB. The word for "carandache" / Caran d'Ache is originally Russian. - Karandash started as a Chaplin imitator, and one can still feel the Chaplin connection, but here Karandash is unfortunately quite far from his great model.

V allejah parka / В аллеях парка / In the Avenues of the Park / Park Alleys / [Gorkin puisto]. SU 1952. PC: NIKFI. D: Andrei G. Boltianski / Andrei G. Boltiansky. DP: Andrei G. Boltianski, D. Surenski – Agfacolor, Stereo 35 over/under - aspect ratio: 1.37:1. S: A. Zapalenski / A. Zapalensky - mono. The original: 1 reel, 329,2 m / 12 min. Reconstructed for 2K DCP 3D, 7 min
    SD: This was the first film in the 1950 Soviet 3D system. It was a test film but it was so much liked that it was properly released.
    A beautiful colour film of the Gorky Park in Moscow, with an emphasis on the brilliant colours of flowers. The people of the city relax in the park strolling, rowing, and playing in the funfair. The impression of depth is refined, and in a scene a young woman reaches out and present a flower for us.
    AA: An idyll shot during Stalin's last year.

Summa summarum: Concert and Crystals are excellent and essential entries in the cinema's 3D story.

Saturday, April 05, 2014

Stefan Drössler: The History of 3D (expanded lecture show, 2014 edition)

Stefan Drössler: The History of 3D (a lecture show) (revised and expanded 2014) edition)
180 min. 2K DCP, 3D XpanD. Cinema Orion, Helsinki (3D), 5 April 2014.

In 2012 Stefan Drössler opened our first 3D retrospective with his already legendary lecture show which he presented for the first time in the FIAF Tokyo Congress in 2007. I saw it then and was already impressed, and by 2012 the lecture show has grown and expanded a lot. The 2K digital reformatting of 12 different historical 3D systems or formats has been very successfully realized. Today, it was further expanded.

The topics discussed included: - How does 3D work? - Paper prints, FR 1900s (mildly erotic). René Bünzli, three films with a lady in the bedroom. - The unintentional 3D impact of Georges Méliès movies which were shot on a double camera which produced two negatives with the proper angle difference (Le Chaudron infernal [FR 1903], L'Oracle de Delphes [FR 1903]). - Max Skladanowsky: Plastische Weltbilder, DE 1900s. - Audioscopiks demo. - Louis Lumière 1935: L'Arrivée d'un train 3D, FR 1935, Mother and baby 3D, FR 1935, A beach scene with playing children 3D, FR 1935. - The 1936 Paris programme around L'Ami de monsieur, FR 1936, the first 3D sound movie: L'Ami de monsieur outtake, ski scene on a hill slope. - Polaroid demo, Edwin D. Land. - Raumbilder: the Berlin Olympics, DE 1936, running, cycling. - 6 Mädels rollen ins Wochenend, DE 1939. - 3D military films of WWII (DE 1940s): Die Flakschiesslehre (DE 1943). - Boehner Film after WWII: Volkswagen commercials, Oktoberfest commercial ("waren Sie schon in München?"), DE 1950s. - In Russia: many experiments with Stereokino, the first 3D feature films. - Kontsert (vertical 3D). - Aleksandr Andriyevsky: Robinson Crusoe / Robinzon Kruzo (SU 1946), a 3D masterpiece according to Sergei Eisenstein. - Mastera sporta demo. - Laurens Hammond, of the Hammond organ. - Francois Savoye, Paris 1954, wire system, cyclostereoscope. - The Festival of Britain, South Bank Exhibition, Telekinema, 3D Technicolor, Raymond Spottiswoode, GB 1951. Norman McLaren: Now Is the Time, GB 1951 *. The Festival of Britain show toured internationally and probably inspired the 3D wave of Hollywood in the 1950s. Bwana Devil was stupid but made a lot of money. - Walt Disney: Melody (US 1953) * - Inferno (US 1953). - - The French Line (US 1953): Jane Russell in the big production number "Any Gal From Texas" - Dial M for Murder (US 1954) - Creature from the Black Lagoon was the last successful film in this wave. - Totò 3D restored (in colour), massaging a woman in drag. - USA: Stereovision, anamorphic, mainly for sex movies. - Spacevision was in use in Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Spain, France, and India. Dynasty / Qian dao wan li zhu (TW/HK 1977) *. - Space vision for Flesh for Frankenstein, Jaws 3D, etc. Arch Oboler was still at it with The Bubble (US 1966) with its visions of a strange town with hovering beer trays. - 70 mm film could be used for a dual 3D image. Stereokino 70. In the USSR, Parad attraktsionov (SU 1960s) still by Aleksandr Andrieyevsky, underwater and bird footage beautiful. - IMAX. - With the digital era, dimensionalization became possible for movies shot in 2D. - Animated demos of many alternative systems. - U2 3D (US 2007, D: Catherine Owens, Mark Pellington), one of the best 3D movies). - Coraline - Cave of Forgotten Dreams - Blooddrop (RU 2011) - Even of classical paintings 3D versions have been attempted. - The fate of 3D: Noah not released in 3D in US, GB, AU, FR. - 4DX: Korea, entertainment parks, interviews with Bying Hwan Choi and Theodore Kim. - US action movies in 3D.

Even previously, one of the best film historical lecture shows I have seen, now even more so. There is a wealth of fascinating information not to be found in film history books or even well-known databases. This information can only be understood in a 3D show lecture like this.

Wednesday, April 02, 2014

Sanokaa mitä näitte / Tell Me What You Saw

Dokumentin ytimessä 76: Kiti Luostarisen elokuvia. Sanokaa mitä näitte – erään perheen muistin ja unohduksen historia / Säg mig vad ni såg / Tell Me What You Saw - The History of a Family's Memories and Oblivion [English title on screen] / Tell Us What You Saw / Racontez-moi comment c'était (tv fr.) / Dis-moi ce que tu as vu (Rouen). Suomi 1993. PC: Kinotuotanto Oy / Oy Yleisradio Ab TV1. P: Claes Olsson & Eila Werning. D+SC: Kiti Luostarinen. DP: Maija Leppänen. Camera assistant: Kai Troberg. M: Päivi Takala - and Raimo Liukko (music composed under hypnosis). Musicians: Kari Kääriäinen, Outi Pulkkinen, Päivi Takala. ED: Merja Härkönen. Sound image: Harri Pulliainen ja Kaija Takala. S: Harri Pulliainen. S mixing: Veijo Lehti. M sound and mixing: Jukka Viiri. Photos from Kiti Luostarinen's family album. Narrator: Kiti Luostarinen. (In the Swedish version: Susanne Ringell.) Featuring: Eija Clarberg, Aili Luostarinen, Anja Luostarinen, Heikki Luostarinen, Kiti Luostarinen, Marja-Leena Rouhiainen, Elina Sandberg, Veera Luostarinen (the little girl), Risto Niiles (hypnologist), Iris Roine (palm reader). Helsinki premiere: 8.5.1993 Illusion – telecasts: Yle TV1: 3.10.1993, 18.10.1993, 4.6.2001 (227.000 viewers), 27.8.2003, 9.6.2007, 16.8.2011; YleTeema 27.2.2003 – VET A-27220 – S – 598 m (16 mm) / 55 min
    KAVI 16 mm print [original format] with English subtitles (by Movision) viewed at Cinema Orion, Helsinki (In the Core of the Documentary 76: A Tribute to Kiti Luostarinen), introduced by Ilkka Kippola, 2 April 2014

Ilkka Kippola in his introduction referred to the theme "Kansa taisteli - naiset kertovat" [The People Fought - Women Bear Witness], a pun on a magazine popular during many decades called Kansa taisteli - miehet kertovat [The People Fought - Men Bear Witness] and saw Kiti Luostarinen's first feature film as a representative of feministic empirism.

Kippola analyzed the film critically through three rhetoric modes as seen by Jouko Aaltonen - those based on logos, pathos, and ethos.

Luostarinen's film is a gripping entry in the tradition of documentary film as a way of exorcizing personal traumatic memories which are also profoundly representative of a nation's historical memories. This way of film-making is shatteringly therapeutic, and it has affinities with phototherapy (Jo Spence and Rosy Martin).

There had been predecessors in Finland, for instance the films of Antti Peippo (Sijainen / The Substitute). Also Pirjo Honkasalo and Kanerva Cederström had ventured into these difficult grounds. But Kiti Luostarinen's voice is strong and original, and in Finnish cinema, she belongs to the pioneers in the theme of repressed memories. - Philip Hoffman (Passing Through / Torn Formations / Aikojen halki, 1988) is among the producer's acknowledgements.

There is the mother who used to be a living history book, an excellent storyteller of things past. Now she has dementia. She does not even remember that she has been married, even less that she has seven children. She was born in Vyborg, now in Russia. With her two eldest children they became war refugees. Her second youngest child was drowned.

There are the seven children. Their childhood memories are blatantly incongruent even in major issues. One remembers that the father was violent and beat a child until blood spattered on the newly bought wallpaper. Another remembers that mother was the one who beat children. Yet another remembers that mother was uncommonly gentle and tender.

A basic theme is memory. Without memory you are lost. Memory holds you together. Memory is a necessary condition for personality.

Tell Me What You Saw is a horribly powerful war movie though childhood memories. Hiding from the bomber planes in the woods. The screaming cows whose udders have been stuck in the ice. The bloody corpse of a child who has been smashed against the wall.

Two of the siblings became war children in Sweden and stayed there for five years. Everybody was crying all through the voyage. On return they had forgotten all about their Finnish family, and also the Finnish language. Even later, they forgot Swedish completely. But by the time this film was made several of the siblings had moved to Sweden.

The sister who drowned became the overwhelming, all-encompassing family tragedy, also with aspects of screen memory.

"Of my siblings I remember nothing. The cats I remember all". The emotions were projected into cats. Another screen memory. Because of the oblivion, hypnotists are employed to bring back memories. Surprising things emerge.

"As a child I played with the mirror." "I forgot everything, I was somebody else. I lived in a land beyond the mirror." "The house in the mirrorland was always empty".

Tell Me What You Saw is an expedition into nightmare, into a traumatic past of the family and the nation. It is a poetic therapy voyage. The tone is melancholy, at times reaching depths of depression. The film is like a lament, like a dirge. Kiti Luostarinen's voice and Päivi Takala's music both enhance a profound feeling of melancholia. In this Finnish version many have found that the director is too close to the story, and a professional reader would have been preferred. "Finally, the film brought us closer to one another", the director has stated afterwards.

The film is a very ambitious montage of authentic documentation and illuminating inserts. There are cats and hats. There are illustrative inserts: a lighting strikes a tree, a house burned by lighting, rain, a snowy birch wood, a misty forest, black waves, horses (much of this from footage produced but unreleased by Veikko Itkonen). This archetypal imagery illuminates the rich side of dementia, with primal aspects such as a longing to the mother's arms. The compilation of existing footage (fiction and non-fiction) is imaginative and original. There are childhood songs ("Työkello"). Most importantly, mirrors are a central visual element.

The vibrant photochemical quality of the 16 mm print contributes a lot to the stark impact of this unforgettable movie.

Tuesday, April 01, 2014

Akibiyori / Late Autumn

Mariko Okada (Yukiko, Ayako's best friend), Yoko Tsukasa (Ayako, daughter), and Setsuko Hara (Akiko, mother).
秋日和 / Myöhäinen syksy / Myöhäistä syksyä / Sent om hösten. JP 1960. PC: Shochiku Eiga / Ofuna. P: Shizuo Yamanouchi. D: Yasujiro Ozu. SC: Yasujiro Ozu, Kogo Noda – based on the novel by Ton Satomi. DP: Yuharu Atsuta. PD: Tomiji Shimizu. AD: Tatsuo Hamada. Cost: Toshikazu Sugiyama. Makeup: Kazuko Sugiyama. M: Takanobu Saito. W. A. Mozart: Sonate Nr. 11 A-Dur KV 331, I Tema (andante grazioso). S: Youshisaburo Senoo. ED: Yoshiyasu Hamamura. C: Setsuko Hara (Akiko Miwa), Yoko Tsukasa (Ayako Miwa), Chishu Ryu (Shukichi Miwa), Mariko Okada (Yukiko Sasaki), Keiji Sada (Shotaru Goto), Shin Saburi (Soichi Mamiya), Miyuki Kuwano (Michiko), Nobuo Nakamura (Shuzo Taguchi), Kuniko Miyake (Nobuko), Yuriko Tashiro (Yoko), Ryuji Kita (Seiichiro Hirayama), Shinichiro Mikami (Koichi), Shima Iwashita (uketuske no josei). Special screening in Helsinki: 13.11.1960 – tv: 6.11.1988 Yle TV2, 30.10.2005 Yle Teema – received information: 125 min - our screening 128 min
    A SFI-FA print with Swedish subtitles by Wakako Hongo Sundfeldt and Per Sundfeldt, screened with e-subtitles in Finnish by Eija Niskanen, Cinema Orion, Helsinki (Yasujiro Ozu), 1 April 2014

Donald Richie remarks that Akibiyori was Yasujiro Ozu's third successive remake. After Ukigusa and Ohayo, he here remade Banshun / Late Spring as Late Autumn. Setsuko Hara plays in both, but here she is the mother who wants her daughter to wed, and is herself left alone in the end.

But Akibiyori is based on a novel by Ton Satomi, and after having seen Ozu's first Satomi adaptation, Higanbana, last week, it was now funny to detect so many big and small similarities between his both Satomi adaptations: same actors, same situations, same milieux, same kinds of running jokes.

Richie comments that there is elegiac sadness in Akibiyori in contrast to the extraordinary objectivity of Banshun. But in Akibiyori there is also a lot of joking and horseplay. There is a balance of comedy and tragedy.

Has anyone remarked that Yasujiro Ozu is probably the cinema's number one creator of matchmaker comedy? And that as such his work can be compared with the tradition of Jewish matchmaker comedy, analyzed, among others, by Sigmund Freud (in for example Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewußten).

In Higanbana, the matchmaker comedy was mostly related to the female innkeeper. Here, the three male friends are the ones who are constantly devising matchmaking schemes.

Increasingly, the women in Ozu's films are embarrassed by being involved in matchmaking plans. Here, both mother and daughter are uncomfortable with the topic. The daughter selects finally the very young man who had been targeted by the "matchmakers", but first when she can do so at her own initiative, without external interference. She had rejected him for the very reason of being presented in a matchmaking framework.

It starts at a funeral (of the husband of Akiko Miwa, the Setsuko Hara character, the father of Ayako, the Yoko Tsukasa character), and ends with a wedding.

The main running joke here is that "a beautiful woman's husband does not live long". A further running joke is about the young Akiko's youth as a pharmacist's daughter: the three friends were regular customers at the pharmacy, always buying band-aid and aspirin. A third running joke is about Akiko giving the late husband's pipes to the friends. A fourth running joke: "is the itch still that bad?"

There are the usual interior scenes where all the major talking takes place. The theme of travel and excursions is also important. The young people get to know each other during mountain hikes. "Everywhere there are class trips". Mother and daughter make their final trip together, and they discuss things profoundly. "I don't have the energy to start from scratch" (a new relationship), says mom. "Your father was enough. I live in the memory of him". They cannot hold back tears.

A new kind of positive and active comic character is Yukiko Sasaki (Mariko Okada), the sushi cook's daughter, who is the one who interferes in the three matchmakers' plan and shatters it. Yet she becomes their accomplice, but always in the interest of Ayako, her best friend. She manages to explode the three men's complacency in a good-humoured way.

Somehow the posters of Higanbana and Akibiyori tell a different story than the standard plot summaries of the films: both posters focus on three women as the protagonists. Both films can be seen from different viewpoints. (For me, Higanbana is the patriarch's story.)

A beautiful and complete print.